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Let’s begin this article with a basic question.

What do you mean by Language Translator?

You may imagine a tool or piece of software that can translate between languages as needed so that both parties can understand. You are totally correct.

Compilers and interpreters are simply language translators in computer programming. These are the software programs/tools that translate the source code of a programming language into machine code, bytecode, or any other intermediate code. Or, to put it simply, it transforms code from High Level Language to Low Level Language, making it machine understandable code.

Every programmer is aware that interpreter and compiler are used separately in various languages. But the Java programming language employs an interpreter as well as a compiler. Java programming language uses both the compiler and an interpreter because the source programming code is first transformed into binary programming code. And, this code is run by the JVM, which is usually a software-based interpreter.

By using compiled byte code, the interpreter can be small and useful. This binary code also aids in the functionality of Java because, when used correctly, it will execute on any JVM, regardless of equipment or software setup. Java makes use of an interpreter as well as a compiler.

Therefore, we will give you more information about, What is Java compiler and java Interpreter.

Java Compiler

The Java compiler is also known as javac. It converts source code into an intermediate file known as a bytecode file. The fact that every type of OS uses a different bytecode file allows for platform independence.

A Java compiler converts the entire source code into a machine-code file or other intermediate code, which is then executed. It is independent of platforms. A bytecode is primarily a transitional code that is created by the compiler after the source code has been compiled.

The “Javac.exe” command can be used from the command line to launch the Java compiler.

How does the Java compiler work in Java?

It quickly scans the entire source code before highlighting the error.

More memory is consumed during the bytecode creation process.

It checks to see if there are any typographical or syntactical errors to ensure that the program is correct.

Additionally, if necessary, it adds some extra code to our program.

Java Interpreter

Java is compatible with every Operating system, and the Java interpreter converts bytecode into machine code. According to the Operating system, this machine code will change.

An interpreter is a computer program that performs a similar function by translating high-level program statements into Assembly-level programming language. When you run the program, the binary code (binary programming language) is converted into machine code (machine programming language).

How does Java Interpreter work in Java?

It translates the binary code into the machine’s native code.

The interpreter translates language one line by one line.

The process ends when an error occurs in line.

Difference between a Java Compiler and a Java Interpreter

The program is completely compiled by the compiler before being converted to machine code, which the interpreter then interprets line by line.

The compiler shows all errors and warnings at once, whereas the interpreter only shows one error at a time.

Unlike the compiler, which scans the entire program, the interpreter finds errors after reading each line.

An interpreter is faster to debug than a compiler.

Compared to the compiler, the interpreter takes longer to run.


Any programming language can be used to generate the machine code. Any programming language, a group of languages, or a language of languages.

Like many other modern programming languages, Java uses an interpreter and compiler in tandem. The goal is to combine the best features of both worlds.

Java compiled and interpreted flawlessly. A Java application runs entirely on a computer using the Java compiler and JVM, a software-based interpreter.

Java employs a compiler as well as an interpreter. This is so that the interpreter can use the Java code, which the compiler first converts to bytes before using. The interpreter then converts the bytes to additional machine code, such as Linux, Microsoft word, Windows 10, etc.

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How To Use Java Serversocket With Examples

Introduction to Java ServerSocket

The following article provides an outline on Java ServerSocket. In web technology, we have used front end and backend codes separately for creating web applications for the secure chúng tôi web application contains servers for receiving the client request and sent to the response for the clients’ particular request. In java technology, with the help of socket programs, we can achieve these tasks when we will send multiple requests with the help of multiple pcs, which has to be connected with the protocols like tcp and udp. We can write the server codes like ServerSocket class, connect with the specified ports, and send them to the data.

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The serversocket class is used for the client and server transfer process.

Server Class:

java packages import(import*,import*) class serverclassname { public static void main(String[] args) { try { --some logic— } catch() { } } }

Client class:

Java packages import(import*,import*) class clientclassname { public static void main(String[] args) { try { --some logic— } catch() { } } } How to use Java ServerSocket?

Java server socket connections will use the two types of protocols for sent and receive the data.

TCP(transfer control protocol) and udp(user datagram protocol) will use the sockets class to transfer the data.

We also see some difference between these two protocols while we use in the socket class when we use udp, it means is a connection less, and there are no sessions for storing the log data regarding client and server transmissions, but in tcp, it is a connection-oriented, so the client and server have the session storages in the log folders.

The socket programs will be used for communications between the web applications running with the different jre.

The serversocket class are mainly with the connection-oriented socket programs.

When we connect the applications with the help of socket, we need to get the information’s like IP Address of the servers and port numbers which has to be connected with the applications for a specified way so that the data transmission will not be interpreted.

Basically, the socket class between client and server is one-way data transmission. The client will send the request messages to the server, servers read the client messages, and send the response to the client, or else it will display the data on the client screen like browsers.

So that we will use two types of java net classes are used a socket and serversocket classes; the socket class is responsible for client-server communications, serversocket class is used for server-side applications it will authenticate the request from the client-side until the client machine is connected with the socket class after the successful connections it will return the socket class instance in the server-side applications.

Examples of Java ServerSocket

Given below are the examples:

Example #1

Code: Client Example

import; import; import; import; import java.util.Scanner; public class clientSample { public static void main(String arg[]) throws UnknownHostException,IOException { int n,n1; String s; Scanner sc=new Scanner(; Socket s1=new Socket("",1408); Scanner sc1=new Scanner(s1.getInputStream()); System.out.println("Enter any port numbers"); n=sc.nextInt(); PrintStream p=new PrintStream(s1.getOutputStream()); p.println(n); n1=sc1.nextInt(); System.out.println("Square of the given port number is: "+n1); } }


import; import; import; import; import; import java.util.Scanner; public class ServerSample { public static void main(String[] args)throws IOException { int n,n1; String s; ServerSocket s1=new ServerSocket(1408); Socket s2=s1.accept(); Scanner sc=new Scanner(s2.getInputStream()); s=s2.toString(); n =sc.nextInt(); n1=n*n; PrintStream p=new PrintStream(s2.getOutputStream()); p.println(n1); System.out.println("Server started and working.. "); } }


Example #2

Code: Client Example

import*; import*; public class clientSample { public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception { try{ Socket s=new Socket("",8888); DataInputStream d=new DataInputStream(s.getInputStream()); DataOutputStream out=new DataOutputStream(s.getOutputStream()); BufferedReader br=new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(; String client="",server=""; while(!client.equals("")){ System.out.println("Enter the number :"); client=br.readLine(); out.writeUTF(client); out.flush(); server=d.readUTF(); System.out.println(server); } out.close(); out.close(); s.close(); }catch(Exception e){ System.out.println(e); } } }

Code: Server Client

import; import; import; class ServerClients extends Thread { Socket sockets; int clients; int squre; ServerClients(Socket s,int count){ sockets = s; clients=count; } public void run(){ try{ DataInputStream inStream = new DataInputStream(sockets.getInputStream()); DataOutputStream outStream = new DataOutputStream(sockets.getOutputStream()); String client="", server=""; while(!client.equals("")){ client=inStream.readUTF(); System.out.println("From Client side-" +clients+ ": Number of client is :"+client); squre = Integer.parseInt(client) * Integer.parseInt(client); server="From Server to Client request-" + clients + " Square of the client " + client + " is " +squre; outStream.writeUTF(server); outStream.flush(); } inStream.close(); outStream.close(); sockets.close(); }catch(Exception ex){ System.out.println(ex); }finally{ System.out.println("Client -" + clients + " exit!! "); } } }

Code: Server Example

import*; import*; public class ServerSample { public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception { try{ ServerSocket s=new ServerSocket(8888); int count=0; System.out.println("Server is Started ...."); while(true){ count++; Socket socket=s.accept(); ServerClients sc = new ServerClients(socket,count); sc.start(); } }catch(Exception e){ System.out.println(e); } } }


Example #3

Code: Client Program

import*; import*; public class ClientMain { public static void main (String[] args ) throws IOException { int size=1022388; int bytess; int c = 0; Socket sockets = new Socket("localhost",12345); byte [] bytes = new byte [size]; InputStream in = sockets.getInputStream(); FileOutputStream out = new FileOutputStream("F:\copy.doc"); BufferedOutputStream b = new BufferedOutputStream(out); bytess=,0,bytes.length); c = bytess; do { bytess =, c, (bytes.length-c)); } b.write(bytes, 0 , c); b.flush(); b.close(); sockets.close(); } }

Code: Server Program

import*; import*; public class Main { public static void main (String [] args ) throws IOException { ServerSocket serverSockets = new ServerSocket(12345); Socket sockets = serverSockets.accept(); System.out.println("Server connection Accepted : " + sockets); File f = new File ("F:\Sample.docx"); byte [] bytes = new byte [(int)f.length()]; FileInputStream input = new FileInputStream(f); BufferedInputStream b = new BufferedInputStream(input);,0,bytes.length); OutputStream output = sockets.getOutputStream(); System.out.println("Sending Files..."); output.write(bytes,0,bytes.length); output.flush(); sockets.close(); System.out.println("File transfer complete"); } }



In java programming technology, the package is called* In that each version of java it may vary the classes in the package the server socket connection is a basic networking feature for file transmission, upload and even though we have sent an email from one client to another client with the help of socket connections

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to Java ServerSocket. Here we discuss the introduction, how to use Java ServerSocket, along with respective examples. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

Why Does Anxiety Spikes With Your Period?

However, if you experience severe depression and anxiety during the period, it could be due to premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) or Premenstrual Exacerbation (PME). If you are already feeling anxious or depressed, these conditions can further exacerbate your symptoms.

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

While the exact cause of premenstrual symptoms is still not clearly understood, most experts believe the symptoms associated with PMS arrived due to the fluctuation of estrogen and progesterone levels in the body.

Your body increases hormone production to prepare you for pregnancy after ovulation. When the eggs are not implanted, your body drops these hormone levels, resulting in your period. 

Serotonin also affects your appetite, mood, and sleep cycle. Low serotonin levels can cause irritation, sadness, cravings for food, and sleep disruption.

However, if your anxiety or depression levels are way too higher, it could be a sign of PMDD or PME, which we have discussed below.

Symptoms of PMS

The symptoms of PMS are usually mild or moderately uncomfortable that don’t impact your daily life.

If you have PMS, you only notice some of the symptoms mentioned below (rarely all).

Psychological Symptoms

Anxiety, restlessness

Unnecessary anger and irritation

Increased food cravings

Fatigue and sleep deprivation

Low sex drive

Sudden emotional outbursts or uncontrollable crying

Difficulty in focusing on or remembering things

Physical Symptoms

Stomach cramps or bloating

Sore or tender breasts

Acne breakouts

Constipation or diarrhea

Headache, back, and muscle aches

Sensitivity to sound or light


Therapy and Treatment for PMS

Drink plenty of fluids, including herbal teas, chamomile tea, and cranberry juice, to soothe your stomach

Eat healthy food, including vegetables, fruits, and whole grains

Eat asparagus, pineapple, peaches, and cucumber to reduce bloating

Cut back on sugar, salt, alcohol, and caffeine

Take vitamin D supplements or exposure your body to sunlight for 10-30 minutes

Take supplements like folic acid, calcium, vitamin B-6, and magnesium to reduce muscle cramps and elevate mood

Sleep 7 to 9 hours every night


For relieving pain, you can take ibuprofen, acetaminophen, or aspirin

For bloating and soreness in breasts, take diuretics


Note − If you are facing severe mood symptoms, try to take cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or other approaches after talking to your physician.

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)

About 5 percent of women experience PMDD during their menstrual cycle. The symptoms associated with PMDD are similar to PMS, but it’s severe.

The exact cause of PMDD is unknown, but it is considered an abnormal reaction to regular hormonal changes during a menstrual cycle. In PMDD, your serotonin levels drop significantly, causing serotonin deficiency and resulting in extreme panic attacks, anxiety, lack of interest in anything, depression, etc.

While it can happen to anyone, women with a family history of PMS, PMDD, depression, postpartum depression, and mood disorders are more prone to get PMDD.

People with PMDD will experience severe anxiety, depression, and irritability 7-15 days before the period.

The symptoms go back within 3-4 days once your period starts. While PMS can be managed with in-home or natural therapy, you will need medications for PMDD.

Symptoms of PMDD Psychological Symptoms

Feeling extreme irritability, anger, or rage

Experiencing too much sadness, despair, or hopelessness

High anxiety levels

Binge eating or increased hunger pangs

Too weak to get out of the bed

Frequent crying, mood swings, and emotional outbursts

Getting difficulty falling asleep, close to insomnia

Having self-harm or suicidal thoughts in extreme cases

Physical Symptoms

Getting Stomach and muscle cramps

Getting frequent migraine or throbbing headaches

Breasts are too tender or sore to touch

Pain in joints and muscles

Treatment for PMDD

Treatment for PMDD often includes lifestyle changes such as exercise, relaxation techniques, and healthy nutrition. Additionally, certain medications may be utilized to treat the condition including antidepressants, birth control pills, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Some patients have also reported great benefit from vitamin B6 supplementation. In more serious cases, individual psychotherapy or group sessions may also be prescribed in order to assist with stress management. It is important to note that no single treatment works for all women so it is wise to discuss options with your doctor in order to determine a personalized treatment plan.

Premenstrual Exacerbation (PME)

It is characterized by intensified anxiety and depression during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Diagnosis of PME is challenging and often gets confused with PMDD due to their similar characteristics. Although PME is similar to PMDD, it concentrates more on psychological symptoms. It happens to people with preexisting depression and anxiety disorders. However, PMDD can occur in someone with no history of psychological disorders but may be related to people with a history of these disorders.

PME can also be triggered in people with preexisting conditions like migraine, seizures, eating disorders, schizophrenia, and substance abuse disorder.

The difference is that people with PME experience these symptoms all month long, but the symptoms intensify before the period.

Treatment for PME

PME is a severe issue that needs to be accurately diagnosed by a certified doctor. The treatment below is only for reference purposes and should only be taken with a professional consultation.

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI)

SSRIs are antidepressants to treat PME and PMDD that helps to boost positive emotions, which get massively deteriorated due to hormone fluctuations. Although antidepressants like SSRIs can relieve moderate to severe depression, they could negatively affect some patients. So, you should always consult your physician before taking them.

Treatment for Depressive Disorders

Depression can be treated with Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists and ALLO inhibition. These treatments can help treat PME-related depression by suppressing ovulation.

This is where an accurate diagnosis of PMDD and PME is required.

Women with PMDD or PMS can safely take oral contraceptives, but it could be dangerous for PME patients as it can aggravate negative thoughts such as self-harm or suicidal thoughts. Meanwhile, if you don’t have PME, you will miss effective treatment.


Scientists and research institutions should make more effort to diagnose PME. This is crucial because many people seeking treatment for PMS or PMDD have PME or other undiagnosed psychiatric disorders. Most importantly, people should also come forward and should not try to dismiss the diagnosis. Many patients show resistance to the idea of having preexisting psychiatric conditions. As a result, their diagnosis couldn’t become official. It’s time to stop treating mental health as a taboo and more like any other disease, as it would help many people still suffering silently.

Why Security Distributions Use Debian

What do distributions like Qube OS, Subgraph, Tails, and Whonix have in common? Besides an emphasis on security and privacy, all of them are Debian derivatives — and, probably, this common origin is not accidental.

At first, this trend seems curious. After all, other distributions ranging from Slackware and Gentoo to Arch Linux all emphasize security and privacy in their selection of tools. In particular, Fedora’s SE Linux can be so restrictive that some users would rather disable it than learn how to configure it. By contrast, while Debian carries many standard security and privacy tools, it has seldom emphasized them.

Similarly, Debian’s main branch consists of only free and open source software, its contrib and non-free branches not being official parts of the distribution. With many security experts favoring the announcement of vulnerabilities and exploit code rather than relying on security through obscurity, the way that many pieces of proprietary software do, this transparency has obvious appeal.

Another answer might be that security distributions build on Debian because everyone else does. Of the several hundred active distributions listed on Distrowatch, about two-thirds are based on Debian or Ubuntu. Under these circumstances, the dependency on Debian could be no more than random chance.

However, looking at how Debian both assembles a release and operates on a daily basis, an even simpler answer suggests itself. Debian may not talk a lot about security, but then fish rarely talk about water, either.

In other words, security and privacy are built into Debian policy and procedure. From a strict perspective, Debian can be improved, since, like any distribution, it sometimes compromises for the sake of user convenience, but it remains one of the best foundations for improvement — and, very plausibly, the best.

Creating Consistency

This statement is undoubtedly controversial. However, to evaluate it properly, you have to understand that most discussion about security and privacy is based on reactive solutions such as virus protectors or SE Linux — that is, tools that detect a possible security or privacy breach, and then act to contain or eliminate it.

But to most security and privacy experts, reactive tools are secondary lines of defense. Much of their time is spent on what is sometimes called architectural security. Instead of designing reactions to intrusions, they try to design software so that intrusions do not occur in the first place.

To give a simple example, instead of running a virus scan, architectural security relies on design elements such as user accounts and permissions to ensure that viruses never get a chance to run in the first place.

In the same way, Debian relies on a detailed procedure to eliminate vulnerabilities. It does not ignore updates, bug-fixes, or backports, but, to a far greater degree than other distributions, Debian does its best to prevent them being necessary in the first place.

None of Debian’s procedure or policy is new, yet, despite Debian’s popularity, few users seem aware of how tightly controlled the distribution’s construction really is. However, you can catch a glimpse of Debian’s procedures in the Debian Policy Manual.

Debian is not the only distribution to have a policy manual about how to build packages and how they are processed through the project. None of the others, however, are nearly as complete. Debian policy details virtually every aspect of building a package, from where libraries, log files, and help should be placed in the file hierarchy, to the types of scripts that can be included in a package and how to add a package to desktop menus. These details are reviewed first by package maintainers, then by the Debian security team. As a result, by the time a package enters the Stable branch for a general release, it is almost guaranteed to be high-quality.

Mistakes do happen, of course, even with such rigorous planning. But when they do, Debian is ready with an equally thorough explanation of what is expected of maintainers when a bug is reported in the Debian Maintainer Reference. The Maintainer Reference covers such topics as how to test a package and report a bug, when confidentiality about problems should be considered, and the procedure when a bug is security-related and needs to be added to the Debian Tracker, the database of reported bugs.

Sometimes, fixing a bug may require working with non-Debian projects, but, overall, this structure allows Debian to respond both quickly and thoroughly to problems.

From an architectural perspective, Debian offers a consistent structure that minimizes bugs (so far as that is possible) and responds quickly when they do occur. Although Debian cannot guard completely against human error or the interactions of one piece of software with another, it provides what is almost certainly the most solid foundation for improving security and privacy that is likely to be available.

Linux Security vs. Newness

Debian’s suitability for security and privacy improvements does come at a price. Notoriously, Debian Stable, the branch for the current release, is often several versions behind other distributions. For example, while Ubuntu 16.10 uses a 4.8 kernel, Debian stable is still using a 3.16 kernel.

For users who want the newest possible software, this lag is often unacceptable. In fact, many users and derivative distributions, including Ubuntu, borrow from the less thoroughly vetted Debian Testing and Unstable in order to offer more recent software that developers are likely to get.

However, for the purposes of security and privacy, newness is not a priority. If anything, newer packages are more apt to have vulnerabilities than older, frequently patched ones. From this perspective, Debian’s stability remains as ideal a starting point for improvements.

Why Does A Medical Center Need An App?

A mobile application for the healthcare industry is a great tool that helps to increase the loyalty of customers of medical centers and private clinics.

The application is aimed to be on the smartphone of the user, and allow them quickly and easily get all the necessary information.

For example, look at the working hours of the required specialist and, if necessary, make an online appointment.

The user can at any time find out about the status of his bonus account, current promotions and offers, as well as see the address and contacts of the centers.

In this article, we will discuss why mhealth app development is important for medical centers.

The benefits of having an app for medical centers: 

Analytics. You can download information for each patient and get statistics on user activity, behavior, and service rating. This will allow timely adjustment of the promotion strategy and service.

Communication with patients. The service interface allows you to collect all the information about the hospital in one place, and provide around-the-clock online chat for communication and PUSH messages with reminders, news, and special offers.

Automation. The chatbot can collect a person’s health complaints, medical history, and documents, and recommend tests and specialists for diagnosis. During the appointment, the doctor will already have all the information about the person, which will shorten the duration of the consultation and make it more useful.

Marketing. You can implement activities to increase sales: hold drawings, organize promotions and give promotional codes and discounts.

Let’s look at the main features to consider while thinking about mhealth apps development.

It is important to maintain a balance between expertise, legal aspects, and ease of use.

Choose a concise color scheme in soothing colors, replace complex terms with accessible ones, simplify the user journey from filling out a questionnaire to purchase, and support a person at every stage.

The functionality should be simple even for people 40+ years old.

Remember that the main task is not to replace a professional and scare you with complex terms, but to build trusting communication and loyalty.

When working with personal data, you must take into account the laws and regulations for storing information. Without compliance with them, you cannot publish the app, for example, in the Google Play Store and the Apple Store.

To make people trust you, tell them about the security of personal documents before filling out your personal account and add the ability to hide your data from staff.

The mobile application is a great tool that helps to increase the loyalty of customers to medical centers and private clinics. Let’s figure out how a great app should look like.

Main features

Personal account. Fill out a profile, upload a photo, medical card, and test results.

Family account. Add profiles of the child and close relatives.

Registration for admission. Choose a doctor, date, and branch, and reschedule or cancel the consultation.

Calling a doctor at home. Assign a date and address, and describe the symptoms of the disease.

Payment for services. Top up your account, arrange installments, and pay with a bank card.

Additional features

Chatbot. Sending appointment reminders, answers to typical questions, technical support.

Maintaining a healthy lifestyle. A diary of nutrition and physical well-being, a list of prescribed medications, and tips for the prevention and treatment of diseases.

Integration with electronic medical records. The doctor can edit the records online.

Chat and video calls with the doctor. Remotely consult with the results of the examination and current treatment.

Scanning drug barcodes. Tracking the treatment process and adjusting doses.

Bonus system. Accumulate bonuses and receive regular customer discounts.

Before creating the interface it is recommended to gather as much information about the company, market, and competitors as possible.

Define business goals, create a profile of a potential user, and determine an approximate user path and a list of available services.

Work specification

Determine the composition of the team and requirements for developers, and set goals, deadlines, and budget. The more detailed the plan is, the faster it will be possible to start work and bring the first version (MVP) to the market.

Marketing strategy

Think of a promotion plan at the beginning to organically build in elements of monetization.

Team organization

It includes a product manager, analysts, marketers, UXUI designers, developers, and testers. The number of people is determined by the project’s scale, the complexity of implementation, timing, and budget.

The process of product’s evolution includes:

design and prototype;




improvement and technical support.

The development may seem like a complex and endless process, but in the hands of an experienced team, everything is created quickly without loss of quality and is tested on real users at every stage.

The cost of creating an application for the medical industry will depend on the terms of reference, the scope of work, and its functionality.

The development of the mHealth application is a rather time-consuming, complex, and costly process.

It requires the involvement of many specialists – from developers and medical professionals to business consultants and marketing experts.

Understanding the purpose and professionalism of all links in the chain will be the key to a high-quality and sought-after product.

Empeek is a reliable company to order mHealth mobile applications.

With innovative solutions patients have better opportunities to get faster and cheaper medical services, that’s why it’s reasonable to consider the development of mHealth solutions for business.

How ‘Both Ways’ Leadership Is Everyone’s Business

A new educational platform aimed at teaching First Nations children about their culture could help organisations looking to understand more about the rich Indigenous history of the country they operate in.

When Bangerang custodian Kobe Atkinson was still a teenager, he realised that there wasn’t a written record of his peoples’ language. His response – at age 19 – along with his cousin Roland – was to create a dictionary, to avoid his people’s language being lost.

Atkinson, along with not-for-profit foundation – SharingStories – knows the value of educating First Nations children about their history and culture. Without sharing and recording that knowledge, thousands of years of history and language is at risk of being lost for future generations, he says. But the opportunities, he says, go beyond First Nations communities – to non-Indigenous Australians and business.

Atkinson – now a policy and business analyst – has worked with SharingStories for several years, in a bid to help the organisation build an ongoing, sustainable education platform for teachers and school aged children. SharingStories has recently launched Jajoo Warrngara: the Cultural Classroom in partnership with more than 10 Indigenous communities across six states and territories to provide units of work, resources, cultural films and multi-touch books for teachers and students.

Co-CEO Sharon Williams, a Pitta Pitta woman, says first and foremost, SharingStories has a mission to educate First Nations students – “without education, First Nations people will not be able to have self-determination and have better employment opportunities”.

“You come out of school not knowing how to pay your taxes, how to vote, or the history of the country you live on,” Miller says. “We are trying to change that.”

Williams – whose mother was Stolen Generation – says her mother knew the value of education, despite being only educated to Year Three herself, and encouraged her daughter to get a university education.  

She says the reach of Jajoo Warrngara has the potential to go beyond educating Indigenous children about their culture. The platform has the ability to teach non-Indigenous people and businesses about First Nations history – something that non-Indigenous Australia has been in need of for many years. A recent survey by SharingStories found that just 2% of teachers identify as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander, however 79% of all teachers want more of an emphasis on First Nations’ history and culture in future learning. 

“It is important that people understand who we are, of our true history and also have an understanding of why things are the way they are. It is really important for us to have an understanding of this Country that we all live on,” Williams says.

“Some teachers believe they have adequate resources to teach an Indigenous perspective … however, they might get it wrong. They might do something very generic, or they might not understand that they shouldn’t be re-telling that dreaming story because it isn’t their dreaming story to tell. Everything we do is co-created with First Nations community partners, because we really want teachers to be comfortable teaching First Nations perspectives.”

Jajoo Warrngara is accessed via a 50-50 subscription model – where revenue is directly paid back to the communities that have helped to create the platform. The remaining 50% is used by SharingStories to reinvest in the platform, co-CEO Taz Miller says.  

“You come out of school not knowing how to pay your taxes, how to vote, or the history of the Country you live on,” Miller says. “We are trying to change that.”

SharingStories has partnered with Deloitte for four years as part of its strategy to build its social enterprise models and it is something that it wants to continue with Australian organisations. The Deloitte partnership has been crucial to the development of SharingStories, Miller says.

“From 10 years ago when we had these ideas, to developing Jajoo Warrngara we would never have gotten to this point without the help of Deloitte. We work side-by-side with them – in shared value – and it’s been special.”

Williams and Miller – who are Indigenous and non-Indigenous respectively – were recently appointed as co-CEOs of SharingStories (and pictured at the top of this article). They describe the move as part of the not-for-profit unique “both ways” leadership.

“It is important that people understand who we are, of our true history and also have an understanding of why things are the way they are,” Williams says.

The organisation itself was started in the same way around 15 years ago through a conversation between SharingStories co-founder and creative director, Liz Thompson and Nyikina Elder, Annie Nayina Milgin. Annie came to Liz with the idea of using digital technology to educate her community’s children about their culture and history. 

Both ways leadership – it’s about Indigenous and non-Indigenous people working together and using all our skills to achieve an outcome. Because cultural continuity is not just an Indigenous problem to solve – it’s everyone’s, according to Yuin man and SharingStories Chair Tim Goodwin.

“Both ways leadership can impact a business. It has been great for us – it’s how we started. In western hierarchy, the responsibility of a business ultimately sits on one person’s shoulders. But the way it is in community – governance is shared across people. When it’s your right and your turn, you become the person to speak, and when you’re on someone else’s Country, they become the leaders,” says Miller.

Both ways leadership – it’s about Indigenous and non-Indigenous people working together and using all our skills to achieve an outcome. Because cultural continuity is not just an Indigenous problem to solve – it’s everyone’s, according to Yuin man and SharingStories Chair Tim Goodwin.

Where does business fit?

SharingStories co-CEO, Sharon Williams, currently conducts culturally safe scans for an education environment. It is spread over four main areas: how does the environment work from a culturally safe perspective, what does it look like (can a child see themselves represented in the classroom), the content of the curriculum and community engagement.

The cultural scan is something that SharingStories hopes to develop for companies, along with an online training platform, designed with communities and providing culturally appropriate education resources.  It is currently working with online learning provider, Go1, to develop the program.

“Businesses think: how can we achieve our RAP? But in real terms, they could be thinking: ‘how can we be authentic in our engagement with community? Businesses don’t have the skills to do that, but we do,” Miller says. “We know how to work with community in a respectful way that’s going to have real, lasting impact.”

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